Sicily’s Immigration Crisis: Why we need Boots on the Ground in Africa

I keep getting queries from people scared to come on holiday to Sicily, worried that the island is so packed with immigrants they’ll hardly be able to move. If immigration into Italy continues as the current rate of 1,000 immigrants per day (it’s actually been more than that for the last couple of weeks) then, by the end of 2015, Italy will have received around 360,000 people. That’s more than the entire population of Florence or Catania or Venice.

EU italy-african-immigrants

It’s clear no country can provide for that many new arrivals, who often have serious diseases, no education or job skills and a lot of whom are children sent off without their parents.

Why are they coming?

The majority are economic migrants. A minority of the people coming here are refugees fleeing danger.

Italy grants about one fifth of them refugee status. Right now the dangerous zones in Africa consist of Muslim-fundamentalist related civil violence in Ethiopia, Sudan and Nigeria but few of the immigrants come from these countries. The vast majority of them arrive from Libya telling stories of violence and civil breakdown there, yet they are not from Libya. They were not migrant workers in Libya. They only went through Libya on their way to Europe. There is a humanitarian crisis in Asia too, but the Bangladeshi immigrants in Sicily are not those who were affected by it.

June 7, 2014 - Mediterranean Sea: Italian navy rescues asylum seekers traveling by boat off the coast of Africa. (Massimo Sestini/Polaris)
June 7, 2014 – Mediterranean Sea: Italian navy rescues asylum seekers traveling by boat off the coast of Africa. (Massimo Sestini/Polaris)

This is big business. The people traffickers of North Africa, currently based mainly in Libya, are making a fortune sending people towards Lampedusa and Sicily and, since they are in a country with two rival governments which actually amount to anarchy, there is nobody to stop them.

Where are they going?

In reality, Sicily is not filling up with the thousand or so immigrants currently arriving each day. It is processing them and releasing them. There is more-or-less stable number as more arrive and the previous intake migrate northwards. If you come to Sicily, you may get asked for cash by a few Africans wanding about dressed scruffily, but you will see far more Africans in northern Italy.

Lombardy and the other northern provinces are filled with immigrants. So are Germany, Sweden and Britain, where the state gives them a house, generous unemployment benefit, free lessons in English and computer skills, and free medical care.

The main reason they leave Sicily is that it only takes a matter of days here to realise there are no jobs. More than 50% of young Sicilians cannot find work, so what hope is there for an illiterate foreigner who doesn’t speak Italian?

They also see immediately that many of the public facilities are far more dilapidated and under-funded than those they left behind. Some of them go on to find out that Sicilian hospitals have less basic medical equipment than the hospitals in Cairo, Tunis and Tripoli. (For example, in Palermo children’s hospital my son was offered a bare mattress in a corridor to sleep on, and the nurse hammered a nail into the wall with her shoe because they had no stand for his drip bag. I’ve seen Tripoli hospital on TV during the Libyan crisis and the facilities looked far more modern and fancy than any I have seen in Sicily.)

A protest march in Catania demanding the government do something to help create jobs
A protest march in catania demanding the government do something to help create jobs

What is the nature of this crisis?

The immigrants to Italy want to escape economic, social and medical problems in their home countries, but they are actually bringing them to Italy instead.

The strains on European countries’ generous social security systems are obvious. Italy is slowly dismantling its welfare state in this time of economic depression – Italians have to pay cash on the spot in state hospitals for medical tests and treatments before receiving them – yet the country still has to provide free medical care for penniless immigrants. Few Italians qualify for unemployment benefits, instead having to depend on relatives.

Even the legal immigrants have great difficulty finding work. The EU finances voluntary repatriation for legal immigrants. Over the last 5 years more than three thousand legal immigrants in Italy have chosen to return to their country of origin using this programme because they could not find work in Italy. The majority of the migrants are refused refugee status but Italy lacks the resources for forced repatriation, so they just remain as illegal immigrants living mainly off religious charity.

Serious illnesses are spreading. Everyone is terrified of ebola without realising there are epidemics taking place already. Italy has Europe’s first cases of tuberculosis resistant to all known drugs, which originated from Africa. Over half of Italy’s cases of tuberculosis are among immigrants but infection rates are rising among the native population. Several hospitals, such as Maggiore Hospital in Modica, have issued emergency announcements – persistently ignored and denied by the government in Rome – saying they do not have facilities to cope with the number of tuberculosis patients they are receiving. The proportion of people living with HIV is almost four times higher among Italy’s illegal immigrant population than among the population as a whole but, more worryingly, is the fact that it is spreading among them ten times faster because of their sexual behaviour.

Last week this child arrived in Sicily and triggered a smallpox scare. It turned out to be chickenpox in an HIV positive patient but doctors say it is onyl a matter of time before a real smallpox case arrives.
Last week this child arrived in Sicily and triggered a smallpox scare. It turned out to be chickenpox in an HIV positive patient but doctors say smallpox is a real risk as it does still infect people in Eritrea and Sudan, the home countries of many immigrants.


There are ever-increasing incidents of knife fights and other violence in and around the refugee centres, sometimes between immigrants from enemy tribes and rival politican factions but more often simply between young men for whom such violence is a way of life and considered normal.

Child sexual assault is rampant. A lot of these immigrants come from countries where girls are routinely circumcised by having their labia cut off and the raw tissue sewn together at the age of about seven. Having females with a genital tract reduced to a mass of non-elastic scar tissue is the reason that Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia have the world’s highest rate of deaths during childbirth and the world’s highest rate of infant still births. The immigrants do not leave their home countries to get away from this type of sexual assault and child abuse, they battle to continue it in Europe.

Women’s right have gone back about 150 years. Every time I go to Palermo I see immigrants from Bangladesh (NOT the ones from Africa I would like to emphasise) treating their women like pack animals, who struggle along three paces behind their empty-handed husbands when nine months pregnant and carrying a toddler and a bag of shopping. Maybe these people do not regard this as a social problem, but I am a European woman, and I do.

What is the solution?

The human traffickers who are managing this flood of emigration should be tracked down and arrested. Which one of the Libyan governments will do this? Obviously, neither. The EU needs to send in a mission – military if necessary – to hunt them down. When you are dealing with an anarchic country, this is the equivalent of legal extradition. They are knowingly and wilfully endangering human lives, and assisting illegal immigrants in entering Europe, all of which are crimes under European law, and crimes which they committed in European waters under European jurisdiction.

This boat was made to hold ten people
This boat was made to hold ten people

This then leaves the question of how to help those bona fide refugees who need and deserve European help. Most refugees, as opposed to economic migrants, do not want to start a new life in a place where the culture, religion and way of life is nothing like their own. It would be in our own interests and theirs too if the EU helped resolve the problems where they exist in Africa.

 Let’s be clear about this, the problems are Islamic fundamentalists. The migrants to Europe who are vaild refugees are mainly Nigerians fleeing Boko Haram and Somalians fleeing Al Shabaab. Sending money to the national armies might help. Sending men to assist in military training might help more. Sending soldiers and weapons might help the most.

Sending ships to import a couple of thousand citizens from these areas into Europe each day is not a sustainable solution.




40 thoughts on “Sicily’s Immigration Crisis: Why we need Boots on the Ground in Africa

  1. Another great and timely post. I entirely agree, it is all completely unsustainable and as cruel as it is for the people of Africa to have to put up with the horrors of radical Islam, it is as equally unrealistic to expect Europe to find room for all the ‘rotten apples’.

    Africa is no longer the starving and entirely destitute continent from the 1970’s and 80’s and it is time the International Community along with African governments find a solution to this and punish those involved in the trafficking.

    One thing is for certain, if nothing changes then they will keep coming and using some of the most expensive war ships in the world to rescue and welcome “economic migrants” into Europe is not the best idea in the world.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Very well told.

    I don’t watch TV often, but when I see the Italian stations on, there are often heated discussions (with people typically all shouting simultaneously) and many seem to have no clue as to the reality of it all, and simply base their opinions on others opinions, who in turn have done the same. So many of them still seem to be under the impression that most immigrants are refugees of war, not wondering why, if that were so, that it’s not the least bit strange that the countries that are at war in the middle east and Africa seem to have a demography consisting of 98% black adult working-age males.

    It seems to me that the media isn’t doing a good job at all of documenting and presenting the facts of what’s really going on to the Italian public.
    For example, I haven’t seen Italian media presenting the immigration flows:
    nor do I see them even displaying a size comparison of Africa vs Europe, because I’m quite sure many people in the street don’t have clue as to how large Africa really is in comparison to Europe:

    Perhaps many didn’t have one of these when they were babies:

    I don’t expect much from the EU in resolving this though. If Italy were still an independent country, then it could launch its own military operations and send boats back in order to protect itself, but thanks to the forced marriage of nations called the EU, Italy has been incapacitated.

    Liked by 2 people

    1. Exactly. Nobody seems to state the obvious which is that refugees are usually families – why would the young men be in danger but leave the old people, the women, and the children safely behind? And since when did Libya have a population made up exclusively of sub-saharan Africans?

      Yes indeed, Italy has been incapacitated. Italy also has one of Europe’s most generous refugee-status-granting policies and yet they could rightfully refuse to grant refugee status to any of these people, even the minority genuinely fleeing war zones: the international agreements on refugees state that the nearest country to the conflict has an obligation to host refugees and in the case of these Africans that means other African countries.

      Liked by 1 person

  3. “worryingly, is the fact that it is spreading among them ten times faster because of their sexual behaviour.” What do you mean by this ?


    1. I mean they often don’t use condoms. Condoms are expensive in Italy and while they are in the refugee centres they are given 30 cents a day which means they would have to save up for literally weeks to buy one small pack! If they are granted refugee status they are given a bit more money but still very little, and if they become clandestini (illegal immigrants) instead they get absolutely nothing.
      Italy has one of the highest rates of HIV in Europe among the native population too, by the way, also mainly because of the lack of condom use – contraceptive use is still actively discouraged in Italy.
      HIV dissemination through injecting drug use in Italy is extremely rare because you can buy syringes in every supermarket for next to nothing.


    2. Here are some articles:

      This one is particularly interesting as it contains surveys of immigrants from Africa which found most of them do not know how HIV is transmitted, they think if someone has HIV they are obviously ill, wasted and covered in sores etc, and some of them come from countries where the governments have deliberately carried out misinformation campaigns telling them HIV and other STDs have now been eliminated from the world.,bs.1,d.bGQ


      1. Then the problem is that Italians do not use condoms, not the high rate of hiv in immigrants or their sexual practices, which do not seem to differ much from those of the general population.


      2. No Steve. You are wrong to think that the Italian reluctance to use condoms leads them to engage in promiscuous unprotected sex anywhere near as much as the immigrant population. The figures speak for themselves.
        Like I said, HIV is spreading ten times faster among immigrants than it is among the native Italians. This means they have unprotected sex, on average, ten times more than the native Italian population.
        Also one in 100 of the immigrants coming to Italy already has HIV which is vastly higher than the proportion of HIV positive people in the native Italian population. This is a very costly problem for the Italian state to pay for.

        Liked by 1 person

  4. How sad AND frustrating as it seems there is no solution in the near future.
    Thank you for your wonderful article and the accompanying responses.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Simply the truth. In Germany you are considered a Nazi if expressing such thoughts. Because you want to let all these refugees die in hunger and war. And you want to invade other countries. And you want to exclude pure Africa babies from European high-standard health care. etc. These are the arguments which can be seen on TV again and again.

    We have to consider that not only traffickers in Libya are profiting, but certain Europeans, too. Political parties who are elected by easily emotionalized voters, churches who get money from the state for each refugee they welcome, anti-capitalists who blame capitalism for being guilty for the situation, multiculturalists who are happy about Europe becoming more colourful, etc. etc.

    Pope Francis for example would never agree with you. His church needs the poor and the sick in order to justify its existence, to get money from the state, to make others a bad conscience.

    Who is speaking for reason?
    Who is speaking for the people?
    We need a revolution …

    Liked by 2 people

    1. Yes, it’s the same in the Netherlands, however, it seems to me that rationality is only just slowly starting to seep back in here. That happens after reality gives society many wake-up slaps to the face. I think that the general irrational and emotion-driven way of thinking you describe, is a remnant of the shock of WW2. I think society behaves like a dampened pendulum where rationality lies near the middle, and dysfunctionality at either end. WW2 was like a strong pull to one side, and the long lasting aftershock of WW2 was a strong swing to the other side, to the other point of complete irrationality and overdone political correctness. This is probably most noticeable in mainland Europe in the once occupied countries and especially in Germany. The only thing that can dampen the swinging of the pendulum is common sense and that people tell things as they are, nothing more, and nothing less. Perhaps European society would be just that way today if the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts had made the then seemingly insignificant decision of accepting Adolf.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. One of the things that really worries me is that Europe is so overwhelmed trying to handle this massive influx of people that it hasn’t got the resources to help the genuine refugees who try don’t have anywhere else safe to stay.
        I am all for helping refugees and especially if they come from a country that was once a colony I agree with the argument that there is an extra moral obligation to do so, even though there isn’t actually a legal one under international law on refugees.
        What I don’t agree with is uncontrolled immigration when it reaches proprtions that are not only well beyond what the receiving country can cope with but is also detrimental to the people coming – they dream that they’ll find a job and a good life and what they find is a country with more than 50% unemployment or else death at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea.
        They are being deceived by criminals in their own countries and others that form networks spanning half the continent of Africa and are centred in Libya. A lot of them are told by the traffickers that there is a job arranged for them when they arrive in Italy, that all their legal papers will be sorted out, and that what they are doing is fully legal – that is why they pay such massive sums of money which they have to sopend years saving up for. Often their entire family will contribute to paying for their passage thinking they will be able to send money home to support lots of relatives. For most of the refugees in Italian immigration centres there is a whole family in their home town wondering when they’ll get some money wired home to feed the kids.
        Part of the reason Libya is in such an ananrchic mess is because we decided to bomb them and oust Ghadaffi and I think we should accept that we made this mess and we’ve got to fix it.

        Liked by 1 person

  6. Thank you for this post, it’s so informative for me, the media coverage I have seen never contains any background, just the headlines with accompanying ‘tragic’ photos, I’m on my way to Sicily in October and had been wondering what I might have been coming to but good to get that side of the situation too.


      1. I have relatives and school friends in Catania, Sicily. I am seeing videos of immigrants rioting, hitting and raping women in the streets of European countries. How safe are people in the homes and streets of Catania? Also, is it a problem for u to have a Sicilian mother in law? And, if so, how? This is in the title. Please email any and all info u have. Very much appreciated, if u do. I am sitting here wondering what I should, could do to help my relatives. Thanks. Your article is superb! Keep it up! I get my news mostly through the videos posted on the internet. I do not hear anything of what is happening to Europe in the USA TV media. I also have relatives and friends in Rome, Milan, Brescia, etc. I lost contact with. How is life in these cities for them? Are they in danger? So this is what I would have been facing had I remained in Italy, my country of birth! So very scary!!!


      2. Actually, a great many of those videos are films of completely different incidents to what you are told. People disseminate fake “news” claiming immigrants have done all kinds of terrible things accompanied by films of events out of context, often not featuring migrants, staged events, in totally different places from where they really were. It’s pure propaganda. Please don’t use Facebook and You Tube as your news channel; only trust news from official news sources (and even then be sceptical!)
        Whilst there have been a few bad incidents, the picture of Sicily as a scene of bedlam and such violence is so far from accurate that it is downright bizarre. The vast majority of violence by immigrants, and there isn’t much, is actually against each other. And the reporters never explain what triggers it, so we can’t judge, can we?
        The reality is that you are in dramatically greater danger of rape or other types of attack in any large American city than you would be in Sicily.


  7. The refugees really in need rarely reach Europe. They are the real victims. With the same money one refugee gets in Germany you could supply food and other things to a whole village in Africa.

    Destabilizing Libya and Syria without any detailed plan was a real bad idea. Either you leave the dictator in charge, or you go into the country yourself, as George W. Bush did in Iraq (with final success by the way, until Obama took the surprising decision to withdraw all troops). Yet you *never* should destabilize and then watching chaos unfolding.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I completely agree. This policy of only intervening in a foreign country once a full exit plan and objectives/strategy had been formulated sometimes went wrong but at least they tried to do it. As you say, bombing Libya was done with no plan at all.


    2. Not sure what ‘success’ you were referring to by Dubbya. Invading Iraq on poor information was a ploy by Cheney to reap rich financial benefits. It was THAT action that destabilized the region. The US cannot indefinitely keep boots on the ground out there. But I agree, with your last sentence. Look at where US interference took Afghanistan.

      Liked by 2 people

      1. The Iraq war of 2003 definitively stabilized the region. An aggressive actor killing Kurds and Shiites, invading other countries, and striving for weapons of mass desctruction with the perspective to use and spread them was taken out. The US did not profit from the action. Oil concessions belonged to France and Russia before the war, now they were auctioned to Norway, China, and others. George W. Bush had to invade Iraq on poor information because super-statesman Bill Clinton failed to establish intelligence there while destabilizing Iraq more and more by sanctions (had too much to do in his Oral Office). Even Al-Qaida gained foothold in Iraq and Saddam Hussein could do nothing about it: Iraq was a wrecked state before the invasion. Iraq was finally stabilized by George W. Bush by ensuring the Sunni minority of fair treatment and presence of troops to keep this promise. George W. Bush had seen his agreement on withdrawal of troops in 2011 only as a general time horizon, to be adjusted to the needs. Obama did not care for any needs, he cared only for his personal promise to withdraw the troops. The catastrophe started in Syria … not in Iraq … and spread to Iraq because the Iraqi government broke the fair treatment of the Sunni minority. There are only two possibilities for stability in the region: Support the dictators and freeze any development in the region (while breeding the Islamists among a perspectiveless youth) – or going in with boots on the ground and create development under guidance. George W. Bush understood this. Others not. – Afghanistan: Without Pakistan the Afghanistan problem will never be solved.


  8. Great piece Veronica. So clear and coherent. I think we need to invest in what the French call ‘les poles economiques’ in North Africa where training, education, apprenticeships are available. So that the migrants do not feel the need to make the journey. I travel in Northern Italy all the time. Beautiful cities like Como, Brescia and Bergamo have all got huge problems with itinerant migrants..

    Thank you for your logical piece! xx

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I agree, I think aid should definitely focus on education and training. So much EU aid within Europe (here in the south) gets given for idiotic and pointless projects which do nothing to develop the region economically and end up in the pockets of the corrupt, I have no doubt the aid that goes to Africa is wasted similarly. Spending it the right way, educating people and setting them up to improve their home, is by far the best way to spend it.
      The majority of Sicilians who leave to find work abroad say they would return in a heartbeat if there was a job for them and a decent education available for their children – I bet most of the immigrants from Africa feel the same way.

      Liked by 1 person

    2. Those that run the governments in those countries will throw up every imaginable roadblock to empower and enrich themselves before allowing a few privileged (read those that were able to offer bribes) to avail themselves of these educational facilities. It’s depressing and frustrating.

      I live in eastern Iowa in the USA, and we have a good number of refugees and immigrants here as well, although nothing as bad as EU. The main problem for the USA continues to be the flood of illegal immigrants from the Central American countries like Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, etc.


  9. I believe that our species is inexorably moving towards a tipping point. Some may say the tipping point has already arrived, but I disagree. We have multiplied at such a great rate in the last two centuries, and due to the human tendencies towards avarice, greed, dishonesty, power hunger, and violence, our floods of humanity are spilling over in some areas. This will only get worse in the coming decades and centuries. We can take in these immigrants and aid them, but as we do, only more will come. Removing the traffickers is pointless as more will take their place. Where there is demand there will, inevitably be supply.

    Liked by 1 person

  10. This is really interesting. I didn’t know you are allowed to say these things aloud. I thought they are considered too un-PC to admit openly. I live in Northern Italy and just today got cornered by a guy begging for money. He was accosting women walking on their own and pressuring them into handing money. I walked fast by him and ignored him, he tried to grab me by my arm. This happened at 9 am. At 11 am I was passing by the same place and he was still there. Seeing me passing quickly by him again without donating, he literally tried to push me into the wall of the nearby house so as to frighten me. I managed to escape. This happened on a lovely street in the centre of town. So, it is a good example of the intentions of some of the people arriving on the boats and their respect for women. Not to mention the guys who have taken control of the hospital car park in town and trying to wrangle money off you by guiding your car to a free space. Dare not pay, your car is in their hands.


    1. Well, I double checked everything and have linked to the sources which I believe to be reliable (they are all Italian government or EU sources) so I don’t think it’s strictly speaking controversial. It’s not something that gets said very often but I never pull my punches.
      I’m sorry to hear you’re getting intimidated like that. I’ve never had any intimidation at the hands of any immigrant here, so I hope that was just a one off desperate person and not a common thing. The one thing that irritates me a bit is that immigrants in my town are trying to pretend that the public streets are their car parks and that I have to pay them money to leave my car there. Throughout many towns in Sicily low-level Mafia members do this anyway, so I am fully used to it, though always irritated as well. The immigrants are less aggressive than the native Sicilans when doing this and also less likely to trash my car, I reckon, but I usually take a photo of them when I park it ayway, just in case. For them to be doing this has to mean they have been recruited and trained by the Mafia, which I find alarming – mostly for them, because the Mafia are notoriously racist and regard them as cannon fodder, so these men are at high risk for an early death or at best a life in prison. Really depressing.


    1. Yes it’s still going on. The Italian government wants to do something but the EU basically makes a lot of the decisions about what they can and cannto do when it comes to letting people in and out of the EU and how to treat them once they are in. The whole of Europe is passing the buck, because nobody wants to be the mean guy or risk looking like a racist. Meanwhile Italy is just full of people and in some parts of north Italy now the centres are full, and there are immigrants living on the beaches with no access to plumbing etc.
      The thing I find most worrying is that the locals are protesting a lot now, and it’s not just protesting about uncontrolled immigration but spilling over into general racism. There have already been a few horrifying incidents of mass violence and I pasionately hope the government does something before this gets even more out of hand. 😦 I think the only way that will happen is if the Italian govt does something ignoring EU rules.


  11. This is about the most open, direct discussion on this intractable problem I have read anywhere. Even the very vocal Guardian readers seem tame by comparison.
    I’m originally from Sicily but have lived in Australia for most of my life. Here our right-wing government has taken a very tough line. Boats are simply turned back and the refugees are left to fend for themselves. When that’s not possible, the government has set up virtual concentration camps in poor neighbouring countries where refugees (including women and children) have been incarcerated indefinitely. The situation in Europe seems out of control, but I’m not convinced that we in Australia have the answer.


    1. I agree entirely. Mistreating people once they have almost completed their dangerous journey is not the right solution, it isn’t a solution at all. And it leaves the poorest and weakest people who could not even attempt that journey with no help at all.
      Behind the scenes, this kind of incarceration takes place in Germany and to an extent in Sicily, so long as people running the centres can get funding and make a profit from it, they detain people in centres long after their papers are all complete and they should be released.
      The chain of corruption starts with human traffickers in sub-saharan Africa and goes right through to admins and governemnt officials in the whole of Europe. It’s a multi-billion dollar misery industry.


    2. I think I’ll have to move to Australia legally one day then because at least they’re doing something that prevents human smugglers having profitable and expanding business, and the irreversible destruction of their society. In the mean time Europe will be overrun with those who are an increasing burden to society in terms of benefits, crime, and (in particular oppressive islamic) culture. The welfare states of Europe thrive on the money of working taxpayers who are a shrinking minority of the total population and are already heavily burdened in terms of tax. If these 2 trends continue, then society and the economy will eventually break down and social tensions become volatile and destructive, as history has shown times before. The irony of it all, is that the progressive lot in Europe who think that closing the borders, sending illegal immigrants back, and hammering down on smugglers, is cruel, are actually without their own realisation setting up a situation that will evolve to be much crueler by near infinite magnitudes. That’s not something I want to be a part of.

      So Australia’s solution is the most sensible and painless solution by far when thinking ahead into the future IMHO.


  12. It seems I’m a bit late to this post, but I want to thank you. I’m a recent law graduate and an American citizen. Do you know of any international organizations who are seeking pro bono attorneys for these immigrants? I will visit Sicily next summer, and I would like to volunteer.


    1. I am afraid I just don’t know of any. Have you tried contacting the Italian law society? Or maybe the legal department of Palermo or Catania university might have an idea?


  13. not one of the photos you shared has a woman or a child in it. they apparently running away from islamic fundamentalists but without their mothers and sisters…….not sure these are the type of men europe should be aquiring at this stage…….send them back!!


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